The Kano Model is a technique for classifying customer requirements or features into five categories: Must-Have, One-Dimensional, Attractive, Indifferent, and Dysfunctional.

Functional answers are features that customers expect and appreciate when present, leading to satisfaction when fulfilled. These features meet basic requirements and contribute to the overall functionality and performance of the product.

Dysfunctional answers, on the other hand, are features that customers may initially request but actually lead to dissatisfaction when implemented. These features do not align with customer preferences or may create unexpected negative consequences when present.

Through the matrix, we are trying to identify desirable attributes (Delightful, Desired and Required) and undesirable attributes (Indifferent, Antifeature/Reverse) from the customer’s point of view

Examples of the Kano Model

I Like it (Attractive):
Low-light photography capabilities Customers would appreciate a smartphone camera with excellent low-light photography capabilities. While they may not explicitly expect this feature, its presence would exceed their expectations and lead to a positive emotional response, enhancing overall satisfaction.
I Expect it (One-Dimensional):
High-resolution images Customers expect a smartphone camera to capture high-resolution images. The higher the resolution, the more satisfied they will be. However, there is a diminishing return where excessively high resolutions may not contribute significantly to customer satisfaction.
I’m Neutral (Indifferent):
Panorama mode The panorama mode is a feature that some customers may find useful and enjoy using, while others may not find it necessary or actively use it. Its presence or absence would not strongly impact overall satisfaction.
Can live with it (Must-Have):
Autofocus Customers consider autofocus as a must-have feature in a smartphone camera. Its absence would lead to immediate dissatisfaction, while its presence meets the basic requirement and contributes to customer satisfaction.
I Hate it (Dysfunctional)/Reverse:
Aggressive beauty filters While some customers may request beauty filters for selfies, excessively aggressive filters that significantly alter facial features can lead to dissatisfaction. They may result in unnatural-looking photos and impact the perceived authenticity and quality of the camera, causing customers to dislike the feature.

Another Example

I Like it (Attractive):
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) Customers would appreciate a car equipped with advanced driver-assistance systems such as lane-keeping assist, adaptive cruise control, and automatic emergency braking. While they may not explicitly expect these features, their presence would exceed their expectations and contribute to a positive driving experience, enhancing overall satisfaction.
I Expect it (One-Dimensional):
Reliable engine performance Customers expect a car to have a reliable engine that provides smooth acceleration, sufficient power, and good fuel efficiency. Meeting these expectations contributes to their satisfaction with the overall driving experience.
I’m Neutral (Indifferent):
Voice-controlled infotainment system The presence of a voice-controlled infotainment system may be seen as useful by some customers, while others may not actively use or rely on this feature. Its presence or absence would not strongly impact overall satisfaction.
Can live with it (Must-Have):
Autofocus Customers consider autofocus as a must-have feature in a smartphone camera. Its absence would lead to immediate dissatisfaction, while its presence meets the basic requirement and contributes to customer satisfaction.
I Hate it (Dysfunctional)/Reverse:
Uncomfortable seats Customers would strongly dislike uncomfortable seats in a car. Seats that lack proper support, cushioning, or ergonomic design would lead to dissatisfaction and a negative perception of the vehicle’s quality and comfort.

Kano Model and Product Road Map

The Kano Model provides insights into customer preferences and satisfaction, while the Product Roadmap is a strategic plan that incorporates those insights to guide the development and delivery of features over time.

The Kano Model helps categorize customer requirements or features based on their impact on customer satisfaction. This information is valuable for prioritizing features and making informed decisions about what to include in a product or service.

Conclusion

The Kano Model is a valuable tool for understanding and categorizing customer requirements or features based on their impact on satisfaction. By identifying what features customers like, expect, are neutral about, can live with, or hate, product teams can make informed decisions on prioritization and development. This model helps create products that not only meet basic expectations but also delight customers, ultimately leading to higher levels of satisfaction. By applying the Kano Model, businesses can better align their offerings with customer preferences and enhance their competitive advantage in the market.

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